According to a recent study from the UCLA’s Institute of Transportation Studies, vehicle travel has declined among millennials – individuals born roughly between the early 1980s and early 2000s – compared to previous generations. According to the study, those born in the 1990s are making 4% fewer car trips and traveling 18% fewer miles per year, on average, than members of previous generations did at the same stage in their lives. “What we’re seeing is a tremendous willingness of the younger population to really adapt to this, to use these car sharing models as a way of avoiding car ownership,” Clelland said.
One particularly influential idea is the Garden City, first proposed by Ebenezer Howard in 1898. “The Garden City paradigm is one that just keeps re-emerging, with a slightly different remix each time,” says Dunn. He observes that a number of new themes have become more dominant in recent visions of the future city, among them the ecological city and a trend toward what he calls “street-based urbanism” – “human-centred cities; cities that are based on people walking, bikes, neighbourhoods. And that’s very tangible for where we are now.”