Crawford says there are very practical reasons why tech companies have become so powerful. “We’re trying to put so much responsibility on to individuals to step away from the ‘evil platforms’, whereas in reality, there are so many reasons why people can’t. The opportunity costs to employment, to their friends, to their families, are so high” she says. But there’s now an additional and deeply pernicious dimension. Even if you did manage to avoid using Facebook, Gmail or an iPhone, we are all part of a “broader tracking universe”, she says.